Conjunctions are words used as joiners.
Different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical structures.
The following are the kinds of conjunctions:
- COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (FANBOYS)
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another:
words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clauses.
Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do.
A coordinating conjunction joining three or more words, phrases, or subordinate clauses creates a series and requires commas between the elements.
A coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses creates a compound sentence and requires a comma before the coordinating conjunction.
- CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
either. . .or
|both. . . and|
|neither. . . nor||not only. . . but also|
These pairs of conjunctions require equal (parallel) structures after each one.
- CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
These conjunctions join independent clauses together.
The following are frequently used conjunctive adverbs:
|after all||in addition||next|
|as a result||indeed||on the contrary|
|besides||in fact||on the other hand|
|consequently||in other words||otherwise|
|Punctuation:||Place a semicolon before the conjunctive adverb and a comma after the conjunctive adverb.|
- SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
These words are commonly used as subordinating conjunctions
|after||in order (that)||unless|
|as far as||lest||whenever|
|as soon as||no matter how||where|
|as if||now that||wherever|
|even if||so that|
|even though||supposing (that)|
|in case (that)||till|
Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together, but in doing so, they make one clause dependent (or “subordinate”) upon the other.
A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or between two clauses in a sentence.
A subordinate conjunction usually provides a tighter connection between clauses than a coordinating conjunctions does.
|Loose:||It is raining, so we have an umbrella.|
|Tight:||Because it is raining, we have an umbrella.|
When the dependent clause is placed first in a sentence, use a comma between the two clauses. When the independent clause is placed first and the dependent clause second, do not separate the two clauses with a comma.