حروف ربط انگلیسی CONJUNCTIONS

CONJUNCTIONS

Conjunctions are words used as joiners.

Different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical structures.

The following are the kinds of conjunctions:

  1. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (FANBOYS)

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another:

            words to words,          phrases to phrases,          clauses to clauses.

حروف ربط انگلیسی CONJUNCTIONS
حروف ربط انگلیسی CONJUNCTIONS

Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do.

 

Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do.
Coordinating conjunctions go in between items joined, not at the beginning or end.

 

 حروف ربط انگلیسی CONJUNCTIONS
Punctuation with coordinating conjunctions:
When a coordinating conjunction joins two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses, no comma should be placed before the conjunction.

 

حروف ربط انگلیسی CONJUNCTIONSحروف ربط انگلیسی CONJUNCTIONS

A coordinating conjunction joining three or more words, phrases, or subordinate clauses creates a series and requires commas between the elements.

گرامر انگلیسی

گرامر انگلیسی

A coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses creates a compound sentence and requires a comma before the coordinating conjunction.

گرامر انگلیسی
گرامر انگلیسی
  1. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

either. . .or

both. . . and
neither. . . nornot only. . .   but also

These pairs of conjunctions require equal (parallel) structures after each one.

گرامر انگلیسی
گرامر انگلیسی
  1. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

These conjunctions join independent clauses together.

The following are frequently used conjunctive adverbs:

after allin additionnext
alsoincidentallynonetheless
as a resultindeedon the contrary
besidesin facton the other hand
consequentlyin other wordsotherwise
finallyinsteadstill
for examplelikewisethen
furthermoremeanwhiletherefore
hencemoreoverthus
howevernevertheless

 

Punctuation:Place a semicolon before the conjunctive adverb and a comma after the conjunctive adverb.

 

  1. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

These words are commonly used as subordinating conjunctions

 

afterin order (that)unless
althoughinsofar asuntil
asin thatwhen
as far aslestwhenever
as soon asno matter howwhere
as ifnow thatwherever
as thoughoncewhether
becauseprovided (that)while
beforesincewhy
even ifso that
even thoughsupposing (that)
howthan
ifthat
inasmuch asthough
in case (that)till

Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together, but in doing so, they make one clause dependent (or “subordinate”) upon the other.

A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or between two clauses in a sentence.

 

A subordinate conjunction usually provides a tighter connection between clauses than a coordinating conjunctions does.

Loose:It is raining, so we have an umbrella.
Tight:Because it is raining, we have an umbrella.

 

Punctuation Note:

When the dependent clause is placed first in a sentence, use a comma between the two clauses.  When the independent clause is placed first and the dependent clause second, do not separate the two clauses with a comma.

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